chronological changes

Introducing the graph
The graph/pie chart/bar chart/table …

  • gives information about/on …
  • provides information about/on …
  • illustrates changes in …
  • compares …
  • explains why …

UP Verbs
to rise
to increase
to surge
to grow
to peak
to double
to rocket
to soar
to leap
Don’t forget about the corresponding UP nouns!

DOWN Verbs
to fall
to decrease
to decline
to dip
to dive
to plunge
to plummet
Don’t forget about the corresponding DOWN nouns!

UP and DOWN
to fluctuate
to vary
to undulate
to dip

Time expressions
from … to …/ between … and …
over the next three years
during the next three year period
in the following three years
the next three years show
over the period
at the beginning of the period

Approximations and percentages
the vast majority
a tiny minority
a hefty 80%
a mere (a modest) 5%
nearly one third
around one quarter
exactly one in ten

Adjectives and Adverbs Describing Changes
dramatic -dramatically
rapid – rapidly
sharp – sharply
gradual – gradually
moderate – moderately
steady – steadily
tedious – tediously

Summarising
Overall, the data indicates that …
Overall, it is clear …
In sum, the most noticeable trend is …
To summarise, the most marked change is …
Don’t use “To conclude, …”

SAME: stable (stabilised) / levelled off / remained constant or steady / consistent TOP: reached a peak / peaked / reached its highest level /
BOTTOM: bottomed out / sank to a trough / the lowest level

a small fraction, a small number, a small minority

a large portion, a significant majority

nearly a fifth, almost 10%, in region of 40%, more than a half, over a quarter,
around two thirds, more or less three quarters, exactly one in ten, approximately a third

Expressing approximation We use words to express approximation when the point we are trying to
describe is between milestones on the graph. just under just over well under well over roughly nearly
approximately around